Saalburg Roman Fort

The Saalburg is a former Roman Cohort Fort located northwest of Bad Homburg in Hesse and belonging to the Limes Germanicus. This fort served for 150 years as a base for frontier troops. The Saalburg is the most completely reconstructed Roman fort in Germany and serves as a research institute and open-air museum. It is part of UNESCO‘s “Upper-German Raetian Limes“ World Heritage Site.

Coordinates: 50° 16′ 17″ N, 8° 34′ 0″ E

Towards the end of the 1st century AD, the Romans occupied the area of the Taunus and erected a simple wood-and-earth fort at the Saalburg Pass to house a numerus (units of barbarian allies) and control traffic on this important route. It had a rectangular ground plan, corner towers, intermediate towers and two gates and was surrounded by a ditch.

Around AD 135, the old timber fort was converted into a larger cohort fort measuring about 147 x 221 m and consisting of walls built from a solid combination of stone and timber beams. The cohort fort was occupied by the Cohors II Raetorum civium Romanorum equitata, an auxiliary unit made of about 480 foot soldiers and 120 cavalrymen. The troops were tasked with monitoring the Limes which can still be seen today north of the Saalburg. In the fort’s interior, wooden barracks were built to accommodate the troops, their animals and supplies. A civilian settlement (vicus) developped along the road leading to Nida (present-day Frankfurt-Heddernheim).

In the middle of the 2rd century, the cohort fort was extended and rebuilt in stone. An earthen ramp reinforced the inner side of the defensive walls and the four gates took their final shape. Inside the fort, the original half-timbered buildings were partly replaced by massive stone structures. Around AD 200, the village reached its greatest extent. As many as 2000 people may once have lived in the fort and the vicus.

In the early 3rd century, the situation along the limes became increasingly unsettled. The fort and the vicus fell into disrepair after an attack by Germanic tribes. Campaigns in the East of the Empire and the Germanic threat to the Roman frontier after AD 260 forced Rome to abandon the limes and with it the Saalburg. After the abandonment of the Upper Germanic Limes, the fort was used as a quarry.

Reconstruction drawing of Saalburg Roman Fort according to the field of archaeology over the past 120 years.

The first archaeological excavations at the Saalburg began in the middle of the 19th century. In 1897, Kaiser Wilhelm II initiated the reconstruction of the ancient Roman fort. Between 1897 and 1907, the fort was rebuilt on its stone foundations; the stone defense wall with the earth embankment behind it and the four gates, the principia, the horrea, parts of the conjectured praetorium, two troop barracks were erected. However, with the insights gained by the field of archaeology over the past 120 years, a different conception of some aspects of Roman military architecture has developed. The buildings erected since 2004 (the praetorium, the fabrica) reflect the modern understanding of the fort.

The Saalburg also houses the Saalburg Museum, one of the two most important institutions dedicated to the study of the German Limes (the other being the Limesmuseum of Aalen). Today, the remains of the 550 kilometre-long frontier complex stretching from the Rhine down to the Danube comprise the largest ancient monument in Europe.


The defensive walls and the Porta Praetoria (main gate).
The walls were rebuilt on Roman foundations in the style of the fort’s final construction phase around 220 AD.
The walls stood about 4.8 m in height. In Roman times, the walls would have been coated with white plaster and then painted with red mortar.
The V-shaped ditches in front of the walls.
They served as an obstacle to attack and were filled with water. The inner ditch was about 8.5 m wide and 3 m deep. The outer ditch is broader, but shallower.
The reconstructed Porta Praetoria, the main gate of the Saalburg fort. The gate takes its name from the Via Praetoria, the camp’s road running in a north-south direction.
Between the two gates, a bronze statue of emperor Antoninus Pius greets today’s visitor.
The statue of Antoninus Pius was created by Berlin sculptor Johannes Götz in 1901. The statue rests on a pedestal with the following inscription:
To Emperor of the Romans, Titus Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius, [from] Wilhelm II, Emperor of the Germans [dedicates this monument].
The inscription over the gateway on the plaque proclaims the completion of the restored Saalburg. It reads: Wilhelm II, son of Friedrich III, grandson of Wilhelm the Great, in the 15th year of his reign, in memory and honor of his parents, rebuilt the Saalburg Fort on the Roman Limes.
The Porta Principalis Sinistra located on the east side of the fort. The gate takes its name from the Via Principalis, the camp’s road running east-west.
The defensive walls and the Porta Principalis Sinistra.
The Porta Principalis Dextra, located on the west side of the fort. The gate takes its name from the Via Principalis, the camp’s road running east-west.
The parapet walkway along the defensive wall which gave access to the gateways’ upper floors.
The Porta Decumana, located at the rear of the fort, facing the Limes. The gate takes its name from the Via Decumana, the camp’s road running in a north-south direction.
The Bath-House, located at the rear of the fort, near the north gate. It is the bath-house of the small timber fort, the predecessor of the Cohort Fort we see today. The rooms include the Caldarium (hot room), the Tepidarium (lukewarm room) and the Frigidarium (cold bath).
The Great Bath-House (Thermae), located in front of the Fort. The large bathing complex was built around 130 AD at the same time of the Cohort Fort and remained in operation up to about 260 AD.
The Great Bath-House outside of the Fort.
The reconstructed Praetorium, the Commander’s residence.
The commending officer lived in a private residence which contained 8 rooms arranged around an open courtyard. Today, the administrative offices of the Saalburg Roman Fort and the Research Institue are housed in the Praetorium.
The reconstructed Principia, the headquarters building of the Roman garrison and the camp’s most important building. It was located in the centre of the fort. The visitor enters the Principia through a great hall, the basilica.
The Basilica served primarily as a public market hall or place of assembly during the Roman era. It consisted of an extended rectangular hall with a roof and large windows.
Statue of Hadrian flanking the entrance to the courtyard of the Basilica.
The bronze statue is a replica dating to 1904.
The courtyard of the headquarters building. This section of the Principia was not reconstructed with complete authenticity. Originally, there was a second covered hall, not an open courtyard we see today.
The Porticus of the headquarters building with numerous pedestals and inscribed stones bearing dedications to the Emperor and diverse gods.
The Aedes, the shrine of the standards located on the rear wall of the Principia.
In and in front of the of the Aedes, the soldiers practiced the official cult of the emperor worship. Several steps lead up to the small room, whose interior decoration could be almost completely reconstructed.
The interior of the Aedes.
A raised ledge holds copies of military insignia and small votive offerings.
A richly decorated Triclinium (officer’s dining room), the most complete Roman wall-painting of all the limes. It was found in 1965 in the Limes fort at Echzell.
The painted fresco from Echzell was created in the mid-2nd century AD. Figures can be seen within framed spaces between the columns on the rear wall. In the central image, Fortuna, who carries a horn of plenty (cornucopia) and a wheel, greets Hercules. On the right, Daedalus uses wax to attach wings to the limbs of his son, Icarus. On the left, Theseus kills the Minotaur.
The courtyard of the Principia with one of the two reconstructed wells.
The two wings of the Principia were connected by a colonnade. The left-hand wing probably housed offices. The right-hand ring housed an arsenal, an Armamentaria.
Reconstructed artillery in the right wing of the Principia.
Reconstructions of ancient Roman and Greek mechanical artillery; Polybolos, Catapultae and Ballistae.
Two reconstructed wooden troop barracks (centuriae) that housed the soldiers. Recent research tells us that these buildings should have faced in a north-south direction and should have also been much larger. Each barrack block housed a Centuria led by a Centurion and was divided into ten rooms known as Contubernia, each occupied by 8 men.
The reconstructed Horreum, the fort’s double granary.
Typically, Horrea were very solidly built, with massive stone foundations. Their floors were elevated, raised on timber platforms. Today, the Granary serves as an exhibition room containing many original Roman finds that illustrate varied aspects of daily life.
The Saalburg Museum.
The Saalburg Museum.
The reconstructed Fabrica (workshop). The workshops along the Limes forts assured a constant supply of military equipment to the troops.
A reconstructed Thermopolium (cook shop) inside the Fabrica.
Portrait of a man imitating the appearance of Hadrian, 120-140 AD.
Inside the Fort.

Source: Carsten Amrhein, Elke Löhnig und Rüdiger Schwarz, “Saalburg Roman Fort – Tour of the Archaeological Park“, Nünnerich-Asmus Verlag & Media (2014).



Biriciana (Kastell Weißenburg)

Biriciana (also called Kastell Weißenburg) is a former Roman cavalry fort built around 90 AD, about six kilometres south of the Upper Germanic-Rhaetian Limes. It lies in the borough of Weißenburg in the Middle Franconian county of Weißenburg-Gunzenhausen in Germany. Together with the Lower Germanic Limes, the Upper Germanic-Rhaetian Limes forms part of the Limes Germanicus, a UNESCO World Heritage site since 2005. The site contains a reconstructed north gateway, large thermal baths and a Roman Museum with an integrated Limes Information Centre.

Coordinates: 49° 1′ 50.99″ N, 10° 57′ 45″ E

Originally made of timber around 90 AD to secure the territory newly conquered by Domitian north of the Danube, the nearly square fort (170/174 x 179 m) was rebuilt in stone in the middle of the 2nd century AD. The fort covered an area of 3.1 hectares and each external wall was approximately 170 m long. Three V-shaped defensive ditches were situated in front of the perimeter wall which had four gates flanked by towers in the south (porta praetoria), in the north (porta decumana), in the west (porta principalis dextra) and in the east (porta principalis sinistra). The perimeter wall was rounded at the corners with two defensive towers. Between the gates and the corner towers stood another smaller tower.

Artist’s impression of the Biriciana Roman cavalry fort. Some details are speculative.

Biriciana was the site of the Ala I Hispanorum Auriana from the last years of the 1st century AD to the end of the Limes in the middle of the 3rd century AD. The Ala I Hispanorum Auriana was a Roman cavalry unit originally established in Spain. Alae were well experienced mobile troops stationed at the Limes as rapid reaction forces which controlled the frontier, carried out military patrols and protected trade routes. In addition to this ala, the Cohors IX Batavorum milliaria equitata was also stationed there between 100/110 and 117/125 AD, as recorded on a stone inscription (CIL 03, 11918).

The administrative and utility buildings were all built of stone and were located in the central part of the fort which included the principia (headquarters) with its aedes (shrine were the signa militaria or standards were kept) and a basilica. Near the principia stood the horreum (granary), and the praetorium (commander’s house). In the western area of ​​the fort were the fabricae (workshops) and the valetudinarium (hospital). In contrast to these buildings, the barrack blocks were made of timber. The barracks were found in the retentura (rear northern part of the camp), the stables in the praetentura (front, southern part of the camp). Each contubernium (barrack room) was the home to a squad of eight soldiers who lived in close quarters. They were 14 barracks in the fort at Weißenburg, each housing 30 men. The garrison must have had a total of 420 mounted soldiers.

One of the most remarkable relics of the Biriciana Roman fort are the remnant of the large thermal bath complex that served the garrison from 90 BC to 259 AD. Discovered in 1977 west of the Roman fort, the baths were restored and were turned into a museum in 1983. There were three historical phases to the construction of Roman Baths in Weißenburg: the building phase I around 90 AD / the building phase II in 130 AD / the building phase III around 180 AD.

Historical reconstruction of the Roman Baths in Weißenburg. (

A vicus developped in the immediate vicinity of the thermal baths where family members of the soldiers, traders and craftsmen settled. The vicus of Biriciana, whose exact limit can no longer be localised, stretched over a total area of ​​about 30 hectares and probably reached a population of about 2500 inhabitants in the 2nd century AD.

The remains of the Roman fort and vicus at Weißenburg were investigated by the Reichs-Limeskommission (Kohl) between 1890 and 1905, and later again by the State Office for Monument Conservation. The ground plan of the parameter walls and the principia of the fort are preserved. The north gate and the adjoining parts of the parameter walls were completely reconstructed in 1990.



The reconstructed northern gate (porta decumana).
The front side of the porta decumana with the with the first V-shaped ditch.
The porta decumana.
Middle section of the fort comprising of the head-quarters (principia). In the background the northern gate.
The western gate (porta principalis dextra) and the via principalis.
The via praetoria with the northern gate in the background.
The remains of the perimeter wall.


The cold water basin with original preserved floor. It was the largest pool of the thermal baths (8,80 mx7,70 m).
The tepidarium (warm room).
The heated dressing room with hypocaust.
The second frigidarium.
A square water basin in the caldarium.