Museum of Ancient Seafaring (Mainz, Germany)

The Museum of Ancient Seafaring (German: Museum für Antike Schifffahrt) in Mainz opened in 1994 in the former 19th century repair shop of the Hessian Ludwig Railway, near the Mainz Roman theatre, as a branch of the Romano-Germanic Central Museum (Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum). The exhibits include the wooden remains of five Roman military ships from the 4th century AD together with full-scale replicas, many reliefs with representations of ships, model reconstructions as well as a gallery dedicated to the history of shipbuilding and construction techniques.

Coordinates: 49° 59′ 38.75″ N, 8° 16′ 49.51″ E

After the establishment of the military castrum (fort) of Mogontiacum (modern Mainz) in 13–12 BC, ships of the Classis Germanica (the Roman fleet in Germania Superior and Germania Inferior) became stationed at its harbor. Mogontiacum soon became the capital of the Roman province of Germania Superior and an important naval base of the Roman fleet on the river Rhine. In November 1981, as workmen dug the foundation of an extension of the Hilton Hotel in Mainz, the remains of at least 10 military wooden ships dating from the last days of the Roman Empire were discovered still in situ on their gravel beds. These survived more than 1,500 years only because they were buried under 7 metres of clay and sand, which kept them away from the destructive effects of oxidation. The ships, all made of German oak, were waterlogged but otherwise fairly well preserved.

The area seemed to have been a part of the ancient harbor where old ships were abandoned by the Romans around AD 400 when their empire had grown weak and they could no longer maintain their garrison at Mogontiacum.

The wrecks were cautiously dismantled, documented, and, in 1992, brought to the Museum of Ancient Seafaring for further preservation and study. They were dated by the use of dendrochronology (tree-ring dating) and were termed Mainz 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and generally referred to as the Mainzer Römerschiffe, the Mainz Roman ships. They were identified as military vessels that belonged to the Roman flotilla in Germania, the Classis Germanica. The vessels could be classified into two types, namely small troop transporters (Mainz type A – Mainz 1, 2, 4, 5) termed navis lusoria and a multinational patrol vessel called navis actuaria (Mainz type B – Mainz 3). A little later, the remains of two flat-bottomed ships of type Zwammerdam came to light close to the findspot.

The museum has a workshop, where visitors have the opportunity to watch the staff working on the production of antique ship models. A further section of the exhibition is devoted to the explanation of Roman ship construction.


Mainz Type A

The replica of a Roman military troop transporter ship (navis lusoria), Type Mainz A (based on wreck 1 and wreck 5) dating to the 4th century AD. This vessel was 21,6 m long, 2,79 m wide and roughly 1 m high.
Slim, flat-bottomed hulls with flaring sides are characteristics of the Mainz A Type vessel. They were very narrow, fast rowing boats with a row of oars on either side. She had a crew of 30 oarsmen.
The remains of the Mainz Wreck 1. Dendrochronological analyses of wreck 1 date her to 385 AD. She was used until around AD 400 as a bronze coin struck in the years 388-392 under Emperor Theodosius I was found between the hull and frame 2. The preserved hull with a length of almost 8.3m consists consisting of seven rows of planks up to the gunwale on the port.
The remains of the Mainz Wreck 2. Like all ships discovered in Mainz, Wreck 2 was constructed of oak. She was constructed in the beginning of the 4th century AD and represents a flat-bottomed vessel with flaring sides. It comprises the rear section and part of the midship section of an open plank boat. Her original dimensions were at least 16 me in length, approx. 3 m in width and approx. 1 m in height.
The remains of the Mainz Wreck 4. Only the five uppermost port rows of planking aft survived. Its dendrochronolgical examination revealed only she was constructed at the end of the 3rd century AD. This boat was originally larger and heavier than the other three troop transporters.
The remains of the Mainz Wreck 5. Originally 18 m long, only the front 9 m long section from the bows to just aft the mast-frame was able to be recovered. According to the dendrochronological analyses the oaks employed in the building were felled in AD 390.
The full scale replica of a Roman military troop transporter ship (navis lusoria).

Mainz Type b

Full scale replica of a transport ship used by the Roman navy (navis actuaria), Type Mainz B. As opposed to reconstruction Mainz A, which represents a troop transporter, reconstruction 2 is a patrol vessel used for border control on the Rhine.
Type Mainz B is a more compact vessel that could also be propelled by oars and had a much better power sail than type Mainz A. The technical reconstruction of the ship is based on the archaeological results of the investigation into wreck 3.
The remains of the Mainz Wreck 3. She was a flat-bottom ship with curved, flaring sides and a sharp stern. The dendrochronological analysis of the oak dated the ship from the end of the 3rd century AD.

Mainz Type Zwammerdam

1:10 model of a flat-bottomed ship with ramp-like sloping ends of the Zwammerdam type. These ships have often been recorded north of the Alps and could measure up to 40 m long, as documented by the ships Zwammerdam 4 and Mainz 6. They were used for transporting heavy loads on rivers.
The remains of the pram of the Mainz Wreck 6. During house-building in early 1982, some 500 m south of the site of the late Roman ships, the remains of two prams were discovered. Analysis of the wood revealed a felling date of AD 81. Her original dimensions were of approx. 40 m long and 5 m wide.

models of other ship types

1:10 model of the Ships of Fiumicino that came to light during the construction of the Leonardo Da Vinci international airport on the site of the ancient harbour basin built in 42 AD by the emperor Claudius. The goods that arrived at the seaport of Portus were unloaded and then transported by smaller inland navigation vessels along the Tiber to the city of Rome. These type of ships are also known from several pictorial representations dating from the 2nd to the 4th century AD such as the Vatican fresco and the Piazzale delle Corporazioni mosaic in Ostia.
1:10 model of a Roman ship as shown on Trajan’s Column.
1:10 models Roman ships.
1:10 models Roman ships, 1: cargo ship based on the London-Blackfriars wreck dated to about 150 AD, 3: model based on the Oceanus mosaic fom Bad Kreuznach.
1:10 model reconstruction of a quadrireme (four-banked gallery) according to a graffito from Alba Fucens in Italy. The vessel, dated to the mid-1st century AD, carried 200 oarsmen with two oarsmen operating each oar. The oars were arranged in two rows of 25 per side.
1:10 model reconstructions of Roman ships, 5: Dromon of the Byzantine navy (10-12th centuries AD), left: Bireme of the Neumagen Type (AD 220 / 230).

reliefs with representation of ships

Tombstone from Mainz-Weisenau depicting a warship from the 1st century AD (original at the Generaldirektion Kulturelles Erbe, Direktion Landesarchäologie, Mainz).
Relief depicting soldiers on a ship of the Neumagen type (original in the National Museum in Naples), 1st century BC / 1st century AD.
Relief of a Mediterranean cargo ship, 1st – 3rd century AD.
Tombstone of the ship owner (naukleros) and sailor Aurelius Theogeiton from Arados in Syria, early 3rd century AD.
He seems to have been one of those ship owners who navigated their vessels by themselves between the Eastern Mediterranean and Italy.
Relief of a marble coffin depicting a crewship raising the sails of two cargo ships in front of a harbour (original in Allard Pierson Museum, Amsterdam), 3rd century AD.
Museum für Antike Schiffahrt, Mainz.
Museum für Antike Schiffahrt, Mainz.
Museum für Antike Schiffahrt, Mainz.

The museum is open Tuesday through Sunday, 10:00 am – 8:00 pm. The admission is free.


Saalburg Roman Fort

The Saalburg is a former Roman Cohort Fort located northwest of Bad Homburg in Hesse and belonging to the Limes Germanicus. This fort served for 150 years as a base for frontier troops. The Saalburg is the most completely reconstructed Roman fort in Germany and serves as a research institute and open-air museum. It is part of UNESCO‘s “Upper-German Raetian Limes“ World Heritage Site.

Coordinates: 50° 16′ 17″ N, 8° 34′ 0″ E

Towards the end of the 1st century AD, the Romans occupied the area of the Taunus and erected a simple wood-and-earth fort at the Saalburg Pass to house a numerus (units of barbarian allies) and control traffic on this important route. It had a rectangular ground plan, corner towers, intermediate towers and two gates and was surrounded by a ditch.

Around AD 135, the old timber fort was converted into a larger cohort fort measuring about 147 x 221 m and consisting of walls built from a solid combination of stone and timber beams. The cohort fort was occupied by the Cohors II Raetorum civium Romanorum equitata, an auxiliary unit made of about 480 foot soldiers and 120 cavalrymen. The troops were tasked with monitoring the Limes which can still be seen today north of the Saalburg. In the fort’s interior, wooden barracks were built to accommodate the troops, their animals and supplies. A civilian settlement (vicus) developped along the road leading to Nida (present-day Frankfurt-Heddernheim).

In the middle of the 2rd century, the cohort fort was extended and rebuilt in stone. An earthen ramp reinforced the inner side of the defensive walls and the four gates took their final shape. Inside the fort, the original half-timbered buildings were partly replaced by massive stone structures. Around AD 200, the village reached its greatest extent. As many as 2000 people may once have lived in the fort and the vicus.

In the early 3rd century, the situation along the limes became increasingly unsettled. The fort and the vicus fell into disrepair after an attack by Germanic tribes. Campaigns in the East of the Empire and the Germanic threat to the Roman frontier after AD 260 forced Rome to abandon the limes and with it the Saalburg. After the abandonment of the Upper Germanic Limes, the fort was used as a quarry.

Reconstruction drawing of Saalburg Roman Fort according to the field of archaeology over the past 120 years.

The first archaeological excavations at the Saalburg began in the middle of the 19th century. In 1897, Kaiser Wilhelm II initiated the reconstruction of the ancient Roman fort. Between 1897 and 1907, the fort was rebuilt on its stone foundations; the stone defense wall with the earth embankment behind it and the four gates, the principia, the horrea, parts of the conjectured praetorium, two troop barracks were erected. However, with the insights gained by the field of archaeology over the past 120 years, a different conception of some aspects of Roman military architecture has developed. The buildings erected since 2004 (the praetorium, the fabrica) reflect the modern understanding of the fort.

The Saalburg also houses the Saalburg Museum, one of the two most important institutions dedicated to the study of the German Limes (the other being the Limesmuseum of Aalen). Today, the remains of the 550 kilometre-long frontier complex stretching from the Rhine down to the Danube comprise the largest ancient monument in Europe.


The defensive walls and the Porta Praetoria (main gate).
The walls were rebuilt on Roman foundations in the style of the fort’s final construction phase around 220 AD.
The walls stood about 4.8 m in height. In Roman times, the walls would have been coated with white plaster and then painted with red mortar.
The V-shaped ditches in front of the walls.
They served as an obstacle to attack and were filled with water. The inner ditch was about 8.5 m wide and 3 m deep. The outer ditch is broader, but shallower.
The reconstructed Porta Praetoria, the main gate of the Saalburg fort. The gate takes its name from the Via Praetoria, the camp’s road running in a north-south direction.
Between the two gates, a bronze statue of emperor Antoninus Pius greets today’s visitor.
The statue of Antoninus Pius was created by Berlin sculptor Johannes Götz in 1901. The statue rests on a pedestal with the following inscription:
To Emperor of the Romans, Titus Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius, [from] Wilhelm II, Emperor of the Germans [dedicates this monument].
The inscription over the gateway on the plaque proclaims the completion of the restored Saalburg. It reads: Wilhelm II, son of Friedrich III, grandson of Wilhelm the Great, in the 15th year of his reign, in memory and honor of his parents, rebuilt the Saalburg Fort on the Roman Limes.
The Porta Principalis Sinistra located on the east side of the fort. The gate takes its name from the Via Principalis, the camp’s road running east-west.
The defensive walls and the Porta Principalis Sinistra.
The Porta Principalis Dextra, located on the west side of the fort. The gate takes its name from the Via Principalis, the camp’s road running east-west.
The parapet walkway along the defensive wall which gave access to the gateways’ upper floors.
The Porta Decumana, located at the rear of the fort, facing the Limes. The gate takes its name from the Via Decumana, the camp’s road running in a north-south direction.
The Bath-House, located at the rear of the fort, near the north gate. It is the bath-house of the small timber fort, the predecessor of the Cohort Fort we see today. The rooms include the Caldarium (hot room), the Tepidarium (lukewarm room) and the Frigidarium (cold bath).
The Great Bath-House (Thermae), located in front of the Fort. The large bathing complex was built around 130 AD at the same time of the Cohort Fort and remained in operation up to about 260 AD.
The Great Bath-House outside of the Fort.
The reconstructed Praetorium, the Commander’s residence.
The commending officer lived in a private residence which contained 8 rooms arranged around an open courtyard. Today, the administrative offices of the Saalburg Roman Fort and the Research Institue are housed in the Praetorium.
The reconstructed Principia, the headquarters building of the Roman garrison and the camp’s most important building. It was located in the centre of the fort. The visitor enters the Principia through a great hall, the basilica.
The Basilica served primarily as a public market hall or place of assembly during the Roman era. It consisted of an extended rectangular hall with a roof and large windows.
Statue of Hadrian flanking the entrance to the courtyard of the Basilica.
The bronze statue is a replica dating to 1904.
The courtyard of the headquarters building. This section of the Principia was not reconstructed with complete authenticity. Originally, there was a second covered hall, not an open courtyard we see today.
The Porticus of the headquarters building with numerous pedestals and inscribed stones bearing dedications to the Emperor and diverse gods.
The Aedes, the shrine of the standards located on the rear wall of the Principia.
In and in front of the of the Aedes, the soldiers practiced the official cult of the emperor worship. Several steps lead up to the small room, whose interior decoration could be almost completely reconstructed.
The interior of the Aedes.
A raised ledge holds copies of military insignia and small votive offerings.
A richly decorated Triclinium (officer’s dining room), the most complete Roman wall-painting of all the limes. It was found in 1965 in the Limes fort at Echzell.
The painted fresco from Echzell was created in the mid-2nd century AD. Figures can be seen within framed spaces between the columns on the rear wall. In the central image, Fortuna, who carries a horn of plenty (cornucopia) and a wheel, greets Hercules. On the right, Daedalus uses wax to attach wings to the limbs of his son, Icarus. On the left, Theseus kills the Minotaur.
The courtyard of the Principia with one of the two reconstructed wells.
The two wings of the Principia were connected by a colonnade. The left-hand wing probably housed offices. The right-hand ring housed an arsenal, an Armamentaria.
Reconstructed artillery in the right wing of the Principia.
Reconstructions of ancient Roman and Greek mechanical artillery; Polybolos, Catapultae and Ballistae.
Two reconstructed wooden troop barracks (centuriae) that housed the soldiers. Recent research tells us that these buildings should have faced in a north-south direction and should have also been much larger. Each barrack block housed a Centuria led by a Centurion and was divided into ten rooms known as Contubernia, each occupied by 8 men.
The reconstructed Horreum, the fort’s double granary.
Typically, Horrea were very solidly built, with massive stone foundations. Their floors were elevated, raised on timber platforms. Today, the Granary serves as an exhibition room containing many original Roman finds that illustrate varied aspects of daily life.
The Saalburg Museum.
The Saalburg Museum.
The reconstructed Fabrica (workshop). The workshops along the Limes forts assured a constant supply of military equipment to the troops.
A reconstructed Thermopolium (cook shop) inside the Fabrica.
Portrait of a man imitating the appearance of Hadrian, 120-140 AD.
Inside the Fort.

Source: Carsten Amrhein, Elke Löhnig und Rüdiger Schwarz, “Saalburg Roman Fort – Tour of the Archaeological Park“, Nünnerich-Asmus Verlag & Media (2014).