Lixus is an ancient Roman-Berber-Punic city on the western coast of Morocco, just north of Larache. It lies on a hill with spectacular views over the Loukkos Estuary (Lucus River) and is one of the first western Mediterranean’s cities. Lixus was first settled by the Phoenicians during the 8th century BC and gradually grew in importance as a trading post (in gold, ivory and slaves), later coming under Carthaginian domination. After the destruction of Carthage, the city fell to Roman control and reached its zenith during the reign of the emperor Claudius (AD 41–54) and began exporting the fish-based garum sauce. The salt-fishing factory consisted of closely-spaced complexes with a salting capacity of over one million litres, making it the largest garum producer in the western Mediterranean. In the 3rd century AD, Lixus became nearly fully Christian. The site was abandoned in the 7th century AD and later became known to Muslims as Tuchummus when a mosque was erected.
Floors decorated in mosaics, an amphitheatre, garum-making facilities, baths, and a Paleochristian church are reminders of the splendour and prosperity of Lixus. The excavated zones (62 hectares) constitute approximately 20% of the total surface of the site.
The archaeological site of Thugga (modern-day Dougga) is located in the North-west region of Tunisia, dominating the fertile valley of Oued Khalled. Before the Roman annexation of Numidia, the town of Thugga was the capital of an important Libyco-Punic state. It flourished under Roman rule but declined during the Byzantine and Islamic periods. The impressive ruins that are visible today give some idea of the resources of a small Roman town on the fringes of the empire. The remains of the ancient town were designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1997.