Lixus is an ancient Roman-Berber-Punic city on the western coast of Morocco, just north of Larache. It lies on a hill with spectacular views over the Loukkos Estuary (Lucus River) and is one of the first western Mediterranean cities. Lixus was first settled by the Phoenicians during the 8th century BC and gradually grew in importance as a trading post (in gold, ivory and slaves), later coming under Carthaginian domination.

After the destruction of Carthage, the city fell to Roman control and reached its zenith during the reign of the emperor Claudius (AD 41–54) and began exporting the fish-based garum sauce. The salt-fishing factory consisted of closely-spaced complexes with a salting capacity of over one million litres, making it the largest garum producer in the western Mediterranean. In the 3rd century AD, Lixus became nearly fully Christian. The site was abandoned in the 7th century AD and later became known to Muslims as Tuchummus when a mosque was erected.

Floors decorated in mosaics, an amphitheatre, garum-making facilities, baths, and a Paleochristian church are reminders of the splendour and prosperity of Lixus. The excavated zones (62 hectares) constitute approximately 20% of the total surface of the site.

Coordinates: 35°12’00.0″N 6°06’40.0″W


Complex 1 of the fish-salting factory, with 23 extant vats (cetariae) that functioned from AD 40/60 to early 6th.
Extant are at least 142 square and rectangular vats with a combined capacity of 1,013 cubic metres. They are located at the foot of the southern slope of the hill below the Acropolis.
Fishing vats varied in size and depth and were built of bricks and/or rubble construction, which were faced with a sealing mortar mixture of lime, forming opus signinum.
Complex 10 of the fish-salting factory, with four extant vats (cetariae) and two arched cistern chambers.
Two arched cistern chambers.
The fish factory also had two buried cisterns.
Roman bath complex.
Roman bath complex.
Small amphitheatre with a semi-circular cavea (seating section), designed to house theatrical plays and gladiatorial combats.
A theatre was built in the 1st century AD and later converted into an arena. Its stage building was then dismantled.
The cavea leans against a natural slope. Up to 7 rows of seats have been preserved.
A row of seats with letters to identify the seats.
The amphitheatre with the bath complex built against it.

The upper town.
Roman houses.
The Palace of Juba II.
The Palace of Juba II and temples.
An apotropaic phallus as a symbol to avert the evil eye.
The ruins of a Paleochristian church.
Roman houses.
The ruins of a mosque.
Venus and Adonis. This mosaic decorated the floor of a villa that once housed the wealthiest citizens of Lixus.



Banasa was an ancient city of the province of Mauretania Tingitana in modern-day Morocco, situated on the road from Tingis to Sala. Its ruins are located on the southern bank of the river Sebou which Pliny (5.5) described as “Sububus magnificus et nauigabilis” (a fine river available for navigation). Banasa was one of the three coloniae in Mauretania Tingitana founded by the emperor Augustus between 33 and 27 BC for veterans of the battle of Actium.

Coordinates: 34° 36′ 6″ N, 6° 6′ 56″ W

The site appears to have been occupied as early as the 4th century BC by pottery workers whose activities continued until the 1st century BC. The Banasa potters produced characteristic painted wares inspired by the Phoenician, Greek and Ibero-Punic models that were exported widely in the region. A Mauretanian village of some size stood there in the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC, and it was on this site that Augustus established the veterans’ colony Iulia Valentia Banasa.

At the start of the reign of Marcus Aurelius, Banasa became Colonia Aurelia Banasa. In AD 285, the Roman province of Mauretania Tingitana was reduced to the territories located north of the Lixus and Banasa was abandoned.

The archaeological excavations undertaken between 1933 and 1956 exposed the remains of the Roman era. The uncovered buildings include a forum flanked to the north by a rectangular basilica, a temple with seven cellae, public baths, a macellum, and streets in a regular pattern. Shops, oil-making installations and several bakeries have also been uncovered. Many of the buildings date from the early 3rd century AD. Beautiful mosaics decorated the buildings, now shown at the Rabat Archaeological Museum.

The epigraphical documents found at Banasa are exceptionally rich, the bronze inscriptions being especially noteworthy. An important legal text, the Tabula Banasitana (see image here), dating from the period of Marcus Aurelius and Commodus, was unearthed in 1957 in the East Baths complex. This inscribed bronze plaque, now in the Museum of Antiquities in Rabat, deals with the conferment of citizenship under Marcus Aurelius on 6 July AD 177; at his own request, Iulianus, a princeps of the Zegrensi tribe, and his family are granted Roman citizenship for extraordinary service (maxima merita), without prejudice to his tribal rights (salvo iure gentis). Another bronze inscription from Banasa deals with the edict of Caracalla, exempting the inhabitants of Banasa from taxes in AD 216.


The trapezoidal paved forum (37 x 34 m) of Banasa (also Iulia Valentia Banasa), an ancient city of the province of Mauretania Tingitana (modern-day Morocco). The forum was lined by porticoes and flanked to the north by a rectangular basilica. To the east was a small apsidal hall, and to the south, a temple with seven cellae fronted by a portico.
The forum.
The six cellae standing on a podium in front of a row of stone plinths and statue bases.
Statue base for Marcus Terentius Primulus, freedman, 3rd century AD.
The forum.
The forum.
The ruins of the rectangular basilica to the north of the forum.

The ruins of the public baths.
The public baths.
Detail of a mosaic found in the public baths depicting a triton, animals and shells. On display in the Museum of Volubilis.
The public baths.

The shops.
View of the forum.