Masada

The rock of Masada, located at the eastern edge of the Judean desert, is a place of majestic beauty. With a sheer drop of more than 400 m (1,300 ft) overlooking the Dead Sea, Masada is the most spectacular site in Israel and the scene of one of the most dramatic episodes in the history of the country.

Coordinates: 31° 18′ 56″ N, 35° 21′ 14″ E

The only written source on the history of Masada comes from Josephus FlaviusThe Jewish War. Masada (which derives from a Hebrew word for “fortress”) was first fortified by Alexander Jannaeus (103-76 BC), one of the kings of the Hasmonean dynasty. Herod the Great captured it during the power-struggle which followed the murder of his father Antipater in 43 BC. Under the influence of Rome, king Herod the Great built a series of palaces and buildings for himself and planned the fortress as a last refuge in the event of a revolt. His Northern Palace, constructed against the northern cliff-face, is Masada’s most impressive structure. It was built on three rock terraces, each containing grand rooms and supported by gigantic retaining walls to expand their size.

Model of Masada.
Model of Masada.

From AD 6, the Romans controlled Masada but in the summer of AD 66, it became a place of refuge for Jewish rebels during the first Jewish revolt against the Rome (AD 66-73). The rebels turned the palaces into their command posts and used them as public buildings. In AD 73, the Roman governor of Judea, Lucius Flavius Silva, headed the Roman legion X Fretensis and laid siege to Masada. The Romans succeeded in reaching the steep fortress after constructing a huge earthen ramp on its western side. The remains of the Roman siege are the most complete examples of such a siege in the world. The siege ended up in a tragic way for the zealots who decided to commit suicide rather than being captured by the Romans.

Declared a World Heritage Site in 2001, the Masada National Park features a Visitors’ Center, a fascinating interactive museum showcasing archaeological finds unearthed at Masada and a thrilling audio-visual production.

Visitors to Masada will find that there are three ways to reach the fortress; on foot by hiking up the steep“snake path” on the east side, via the siege ramp on the west side or by cable car.

The Masada cableway, built in 1971 to carry people to the ruins at the top of the plateau.
The Masada cableway which lifts visitors from well below sea level up the top of the plateau. The original cable car was constructed in 1971 and later replaced in 1998 by an aerial tramway system.

PORtFOLIO

THE WESTERN PALACE

The entrance to the Western Palace, the largest structure in Masada, covering 3,700 square metres.
The entrance to the Western Palace. It was the largest structure in Masada, covering 3,700 square metres and the main ceremonial and administrative building.
The entrance to the Western Palace with Hellenistic-style wall painting featuring painted stucco panels imitating the facings of a real wall.
The entrance to the Western Palace with Hellenistic-style wall painting featuring painted stucco panels imitating the facings of a real wall.
Overview of the Western Palace.
Overview of the Western Palace.
Mosaic floor with geometric patterns in the corridor leading to the bathhouse of the Western Palace.
Mosaic panel featuring a single rosette in the centre of a polychrome mosaic in the bathhouse of the Western Palace.

THE NORTHERN PALACE

Looking down on Herod's spectacularly situated Northern Palace, Masada
Looking down on Herod’s spectacularly situated Northern Palace.
view of the triple-terrassed northern palace. Herod designed it for personal use. Square staircase towers linked the three levels.
View of the three terraces of the Northern Palace. Herod designed this palace for personal use. Square staircase towers linked the three levels.
The lower terrace of Herod's Northern Palace.
The lower terrace of Herod’s Northern Palace. It was used for receptions and banquets and was enclosed on all four sides with porticoes and included a bathhouse.
The magnificent frescoes on the southern part of the lower terrace of Herod's Northern Palace.
The magnificent frescoes on the southern part of the lower terrace of Herod’s Northern Palace.
Close-up of the corners of the inner row of columns. The artists' efforts to imitate the veins of marble are characteristic of the period.
Close-up of the corners of the inner row of columns. The artists’ efforts to imitate the veins of marble are characteristic of the period.
The middle terrace of Herod's Northern Palace, it was founded on concentric circular walls with an outer diametre of 15.3m, two rows of columns supported a pointed roof.
The middle terrace of Herod’s Northern Palace. It was founded on concentric circular walls with an outer diametre of 15.3m. Two rows of columns supported a pointed roof.
The upper terrace of Herod's Northern Palace where a small courtyard separated the semicircular balcony from mosaic-floored rooms.
The upper terrace of Herod’s Northern Palace where a small courtyard separated the semicircular balcony from mosaic-floored rooms.

THE LARGE BATHHOUSE

Herod's large bathhouse located on the north side of the plateau. It is composed of several rooms - a cold, warm and hot baths, and dressing room.
Herod’s large bathhouse located on the north side of the plateau. It was composed of several rooms; cold (frigidarium), warm (tepidarium) and hot baths (caldarium), and dressing room (apodyterium).
North-east corner of the apodyterium (undressing room), the lower parts of the original frescoes have been covered by a tiny bathing pool added either by the Zealots or the Roman garrison.
North-east corner of the apodyterium (dressing room). The lower parts of the original frescoes have been covered by a tiny bathing pool added later by the Jewish Zealots.
A section of the hot room (caldarium) in Herod's large bathhouse with a double floor suspended over small stones and clay pillars.
A section of the hot room (caldarium) in Herod’s large bathhouse with a double floor suspended over small stones and clay pillars.
A section of the hot room (caldarium) in Herod's large bathhouse with clay pipes along the walls that were used to allow the hot air to warm up the side of the pool.
A reconstructed section of the hot room (caldarium) in Herod’s large bathhouse with clay pipes along the walls that were used to allow the hot air to warm up the side of the pool.

THE COMMANDANT’S RESIDENCE

The Commandant's Residence consisting of several rooms arranged around a central courtyard, Masada.
The Commandant’s Residence consisting of several rooms arranged around a central courtyard.
Fresco decorating one of the rooms inside the Commandant's Residence.
Fresco decorating one of the rooms inside the Commandant’s Residence.
The Commandant's Residence consisting of several rooms arranged around a central courtyard.
The Commandant’s Residence consisting of several rooms arranged around a central courtyard.

THE STOREROOMS COMPLEX

The storeroom complex.
The storeroom complex located near the northern side of the hill. The complex included 29 long halls built side by side in long rows. Each storeroom was 27m long and 4m meters wide.
The storeroom complex. Each storeroom was used to hold a different commodity. This included essentials like olive oil, grains, nuts and seeds.
The storeroom complex. Each storeroom was used to hold a different commodity including food essentials like olive oil, grains, nuts, seeds and wine (imported from Italy). In addition to food the storerooms would have held weapons.
View of the storeroom complex and the large Bathhouse.
View of the storeroom complex and the large Bathhouse.

THE OFFICERS BARRACKS

The Officers Barracks located in the center of the hill.
The Officers Barracks located in the center of the hill.

THE CISTERNS

One of the cisterns built at the top of Masada to preserve water during times of siege and to supply the king’s swimming pools and baths.
One of the cisterns built at the top of Masada to preserve water during times of siege and to supply the king’s swimming pools and baths.
One of the cisterns built at the top of Masada. Herod had a huge network of 12 cisterns on two levels dug out of the stone at the base of the mountain on the northwestern slope.
One of the cisterns built at the top of Masada. Herod had a huge network of 12 cisterns dug out of the stone at the base of the mountain on the northwestern slope each holding roughly 3,450m3 of water. The water would be transferred up to other cisterns on the top of Masada by donkeys.

THE COLUMBARIUM TOWERS

One of the columbarium towers with niches for doves an pigeons located on the south side of Masada.
The circular columbarium with niches for doves an pigeons located on the south side of Masada.
One of the columbarium towers with niches for the raising of pigeons for their meat, and bird droppings which were used as a fertilizer for growing food.
One of the columbarium towers with niches for the raising of doves and pigeons. Bird droppings were used as agricultural fertilizer. These birds were also used for sending messages and supplied meat for the Masada’s inhabitants.

THE DEFENSE WALLS AND GATES

The defense wall surrounding the mountain top and built by Herod, it was 4m wide and 6m high with 37 towers 25m high every 70-80 metres.
The defense wall surrounding the mountain top and built by Herod. It was 4m wide and 6m high with 37 towers 25m high every 70-80 metres.
The South Gate.
The South Gate.

THE ROMAN SIEGE RAMP AND CAMPS

View from the hilltop of Masada of the Roman siege ramp and remnants of Camp E, one of several legionary camps.
View from the hilltop of Masada of the Roman siege ramp and remnants of Camp E, one of several legionary camps.
Remnants of Camp A, one of several legionary camps seen from the hilltop.
Remnants of Camp A, one of several legionary camps seen from the hilltop.
Remnants of Camp B, one of several legionary camps just outside the circumvallation wall around Masada seen from the hilltop.
Remnants of Camp B, one of several legionary camps just outside the circumvallation wall around Masada seen from the hilltop.
Remnants of Camp C, one of several legionary camps just outside the circumvallation wall around Masada seen from the hilltop.
Remnants of Camp C, one of several legionary camps just outside the circumvallation wall around Masada seen from the hilltop.
Remnants of Camp D, one of several legionary camps just outside the circumvallation wall around Masada seen from the hilltop.
Remnants of Camp D, one of several legionary camps just outside the circumvallation wall around Masada seen from the hilltop.
Remnants of Camp E, one of several legionary camps just outside the circumvallation wall around Masada seen from the hilltop.
Remnants of Camp E, one of several legionary camps seen from the hilltop.
Remnants of Camp F, one of several legionary camps just outside the circumvallation wall around Masada seen from the hilltop.
Remnants of Camp F, one of several legionary camps just outside the circumvallation wall around Masada seen from the hilltop.
Remnants of Camp F, one of several legionary camps just outside the circumvallation wall.
Remnants of Camp F, one of several legionary camps just outside the circumvallation wall.
Roman catapult stones dating from the First Jewish Revolt.
Roman catapult stones dating from the First Jewish Revolt.

Links:

Bibliography:

  • Yadin, Yigael. Masada: Herod’s Fortress and the Zealots’ Last Stand. London, 1966

Megiddo

Megiddo is a tell (an ancient hilltop settlement) in northern Israel overlooking the Jezreel Valley in Lower Galilee. Known for its historical and theological importance, especially under its Greek name Armageddon (“Battle of the End of Days”), the city was strategically located on an ancient trade road, the Via Maris, linking Egypt and Damascus. In ancient times Megiddo was an important city-state and assumed a prominent role. Excavations have unearthed 25 layers of ruins representing every singe period of ancient history in the Land of Israel.

Coordinates: 32°30’0”N, 34°53’23”E

Meggido was fist inhabited in the 6th millennium BC during the Neolithic period although the first significant remains date to the Chalcolithic period (4500–3500 BC). Later, during the beginning the Early Bronze Age (ca. 3300 BC), a temple was constructed on the tell which has been described by its excavators as “the most monumental single edifice so far uncovered in the Early Bronze Age Levant”. By the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC, Megiddo was already a fortified city with huge walls, and a thousand years later it became a center of Egyptian rule over Canaan. Because of its strategic location, Megiddo was the site of several historical battles. The first reference to Megiddo in a written source dates from 1479 BC. It is a detailed account (the first recorded battle in history) of the campaign of Pharaoh Thutmose III to reassert Egypt’s dominion over the territories in Canaan.

Megiddo was taken by the Israelites at the time of King David, and the city reached its peak under King Solomon in the 10th century BC. Solomon rebuilt Megiddo as a royal city, administering the northern part of the kingdom. Several structures dating to the reign of Salomon have been identified such as palaces, fortification, stables, administrative buildings and a water system. These structures however were destroyed in the late 10th century BC, possibly by Pharaoh Shoshenq I, but the city was rebuilt. In 732 BC the Assyrian king Tiglath-pileser III took the city and destroyed it. After 720 BC, a new city was built at Meggido and it became the capital of an Assyrian province named Magiddu. The city was abandoned after the Persian period. During the Roman era a small garrison known as Legio was stationed nearby.

The site is now protected as Megiddo National Park and is a World Heritage Site.

PORtFOLIO

The Canaanite city gate dating to the Late Bronze Age period (1150-1150 BC), the gates were faced with ashlar block, some made of basalt.
The Canaanite city gate dating to the Late Bronze Age period (1150-1150 BC), the gates were faced with ashlar block, some made of basalt.
The Israelite Gate city gate dating to the Iron Age period (9-10th century BC). This gate was built by King Solomon (10th century BC) according to some scholars) or Ahab (9th century BC) or Jeroboam II (9th century BC).
The Israelite Gate city gate dating to the Iron Age period (9-10th century BC).
This gate was built by King Solomon (10th century BC) according to some scholars) or Ahab (9th century BC) or Jeroboam II (9th century BC).
The north Stables and Palace dating from the 8/9th century BC Israelite period, it belongs to the "Chariot city" of King Solomon.
The north Stables and Palace dating from the 8/9th century BC Israelite period, it belongs to the “Chariot city” of King Solomon.
The Sacred Area which served as a focus of worship for over two thousand years, it was the religious focal point of the city.
The Sacred Area which served as a focus of worship for over two thousand years, it was the religious focal point of the city.
The Sacred Area. The first temple was built during the first part of the Early Bronze Age. The round altar, nine metre in circumference, was probably used for animal sacrifices.
The Sacred Area. The first temple was built during the first part of the Early Bronze Age. The round altar, nine metres in circumference, was probably used for animal sacrifices.
The Granary, a 7m deep pit which used to be a grain silo from the Assyrian period (8th century BC), it had a capacity of 450 cubic metres.
The Granary, a 7m deep pit which used to be a grain silo from the Assyrian period (8th century BC), it had a capacity of 450 cubic metres.
The Southern Stables, they had five units and could accommodate 150 horses, 9th or 8th century BC.
The Southern Stables. They had five units and could accommodate 150 horses, 9th or 8th century BC. Each unit consisted of a rectangular building divided into three sections by two rows of alternating pillars and troughs.
The southern stables, they had five units and could accommodate 150 horses, 9th or 8th century BC.
The southern stables.
The southern stables.
The southern stables.
The ruins of the Assyrian city. In 732 BC, the Assyrian Tiglath-Pileser III conquered the northern part of the Kingdom of Israel, Megiddo became the capital of the province of Magiddu.
The ruins of the Assyrian city. In 732 BC, the Assyrian king Tiglath-Pileser III conquered the northern part of the Kingdom of Israel, Megiddo became the capital of the province of Magiddu.
The Water System built in the 10th century BC, it was 80m tunnel which led to the spring under the bedrock.
The Water System built in the 10th century BC, it was 80m tunnel which led to the spring under the bedrock.
Megiddo, the "Chariot city" of King Solomon.
Megiddo, the “Chariot city” of King Solomon.

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