Machaerus is a fortified hilltop palace overlooking the Dead Sea in Transjordan, southeast of the mouth of the Jordan river. The fortress was erected by the Hasmonean king Alexander Jannaeus (103–76 BC) and was destroyed by Pompey’s general Gabinius in 57 BC, but later rebuilt by Herod the Great. Upon Herod’s death, his son Herod Antipas inherited the fortress where Salome is said to have danced in return for the head of John the Baptist. During the First Jewish Revolt, Jewish rebels took control of the fortress which was besieged and destroyed by the Romans in 72 AD.

Alexander Jannaeus, the second Hasmonean king of Judaea, first built the fortress of Machaerus around 90 BC in southern Perea. It was used as one of the depositories for his treasures and as an important strategic position. Machaerus later served as a base for Aristobulus II in his resistance against the Romans and Pliny, in his Historia Naturalis, describes it as one of the strongest points in the region after Jerusalem. The Hasmonean state was conquered by the Romans in the 60s BC and the fortress was destroyed by the Roman commander Aulus Gabinius in 57 BC after he had suppressed the revolt led by Aristobulus II and his son Alexander.

King Herod the Great rebuilt the fortress in 30 BC and turned the originally defensive center into a lavish palace measuring approximately 110 meters east-west and 60 meters north-south. It was divided into two wings: the eastern wing contained a bathhouse with mosaic floors and five storage rooms, the western wing had a peristyle court surrounded on all sides by colonnades opening onto two halls on the south, triclinia. The wall surrounding the fortress was defended on both sides by a tower (see image reconstruction here and here).

After Herod’s death, the fortress passed to his son Herod Antipas, who ruled from 4 BC until 39 AD. It was during this time that John the Baptist was imprisoned and beheaded at Machaerus. According to the Bible, Salome is said to have danced for Herod Antipas who, impressed by her performance, promised her anything she wanted. Encouraged by her mother Herodias, Salome demanded John the Baptist’s head on a platter. His subsequent execution also took place in the fortress.

After the deposition and banishment of Herod Antipas, Machaerus passed to Herod Agrippa I until his death in 44 AD, after which it came under Roman control. At the outbreak of the Jewish Revolt in 66 AD the Roman garrison abandoned the fortress into the rebel’s hands, who held it up to 72 AD. In that year the Roman legate Lucilius Bassus besieged the fortress by building a siege ramp on the ridge of the hill, before taking and destroying it. The fortress was not rebuilt after that, but during the Byzantine period, the Christians built a church on the eastern hill, calling the site Machaberos.

The site was rediscovered by the Frisian explorer Ulrich Jasper Seetzen in 1807. The archaeological excavation of Machaerus first began in the 1960s by E Jerry Vardaman, and then in the 1970s, 80s and 90s by Virgilio Canio Corbo and Michele Piccirillo. Since Father Piccirillo’s death in 2008, the Hungarian Academy of Arts has conducted archaeological excavations and architectural surveys in the ancient hilltop.

Coordinates: 31° 34′ 2″ N, 35° 37′ 27″ E


The ruins of Herod’s palace.
The partially reconstructed royal courtyard with its apsidal throne-niche and Doric peristyle. There were originally 24 Doric columns (plus the 4 heart-shape-form ones at the corners), of which 11 column-prints survived on the Stylobate. This is where Salome is believed to have danced for Herod Antipas.
The re-erected Doric column as well as the in situ and reconstructed Herodian Lithostrotos (“stone pavement”) in the royal courtyard.
View of the Dead Sea from the top of the mountain. It is possible to see Herod’s two other mountain-top palaces, Herodium near Bethlehem and Alexandrium near Jericho. On a clear day it is possible to see the towers of Jerusalem.
The remains of a triclinium for fancy dining.
The two re-erected complete Herodian columns of Machaerus, one Ionic and one Doric.
The Herodian royal bathhouse which was Ionic in style. Inside the Apodyterium hall of the bathhouse there could have been originally (most probably) 12 similar Ionic columns.
The remains of one of the bath pools.
A mosaic from the baths of the fortress. This is the most ancient mosaic found in Jordan.
The ruins of Herod’s palace.
The Roman siege ramp similar to the one at Masada. However this one was never completed.
The path leading to the fortress. An aqueduct, 15 m in height, brought rainwater from the nearby plateau to a series of cisterns on the northern slope of the mountain. The aqueduct also served as a bridge that connected the fortress to the high plateau.



Sometimes nickname the “Pompeii of Asia”, Gerasa, known today as Jerash, is one of the great classical cities of the Near East. Set in a fertile valley high in the hills of Gilead about 48 km north of Amman (Philadelphia), Gerasa is also the best preserved of the cities of the Decapolis and one of the best examples of a prosperous Roman provincial town. Boasting an unbroken chain of human occupation dating back more than 6500 years, Gerasa was transformed from a village into a considerable town in Hellenistic times and a colony under the Roman Empire. Most of its ruins remained buried in the soil for hundreds of years until they were discovered in 1806.

Coordinates: 32° 16′ 20.21″ N, 35° 53′ 29.03″ E

The history of the site dates back to the Stone and Bronze Age and was colonised, like Pella and Gadara, during the reign of Alexander the Great who settled retired Macedonian soldiers there. The city was then known as Antioch on the Chrysorhoas (Antioch on the Golden River) but remains from the Hellenistic period are scarce.

Following General Pompey’s conquest in 63 BC, the city and its lands were attached to the province of Syria and became one of the ten great Roman cities of the Decapolis League. This was the great turning-point in the history of the town. Over the next two centuries, trade with the Nabateans flourished and the city, then known as Gerasa, grew extremely wealthy thanks to local agriculture and iron-ore mining. In the middle of the 1st century AD the city was remodelled and a complete rebuilding programme was launched. It was laid out on a north-south axis intersected by two side streets running east-west and marked by tetrapyla. An inscription on the North-west Gate shows that the town walls were completed in 75-76 AD thus setting the limits for the city’s growth. A large Temple of Zeus was built in Romano-Syrian type ca. 27/28 AD but was finished in the 160s. Nearby, the South Theatre was constructed in the 1st century AD.

The city was further enhanced in 106 AD when Trajan annexed the Nabatean kingdom and incorporated it into his new Province of Arabia, to which he added Gerasa. Trajan’s reorganisation marked the beginning of a new period of prosperity for the whole area with the construction of a great new road, the Via Nova Traiana, which linked the provincial capital (Bostra) in the north with the Gulf of Aqaba in the south. This new road led to a surge in the city’s prosperity, reflected in the implementation of a new building plan throughout the 2nd century AD. Hadrian paid a personal visit to Gerasa, staying in the city for a part of the winter of 129-30 AD. His prolonged visit was the signal for a fresh outburst of building activity, and a huge triumphal arch was erected to celebrate his visit. The Antonine period which followed saw the golden age of Gerasa. A new temple to Artemis was dedicated in 150 AD, a Nymphaeum was built in 191 AD, a Temple of Nemesis, now vanished, was built just outside the North Gate, and another, to Zeus Epicarpus (the fruit bearer), farther up the valley was built and paid by a centurion.

Gerasa’s fortunes peaked around the beginning of the 3rd century AD, when Gerasa was promoted to the rank of colony and boasted a population of 15,000 to 20,000 inhabitants. The importance of the city continued under the Byzantine Empire. Gerasa held a large Christian community and between 400 and 600 AD, about fifteen churches were constructed here, often using stones and columns from earlier buildings, including the Temple of Artemis.

The Persian invasion of 614 AD caused a rapid decline in Gerasa’s wealth and population but despite its decline, the city continued to flourish during the Umayyad period. The city further declined with the devastating earthquake of 747 which destroyed most parts of the region.

The city was rediscovered in 1806 by Ulrich Jasper Seetzen, a German traveler, who described the remains. His report led to a visit by Johann Ludwig Burckhardt, a Swiss explorer. Burckhardt’s description attracted more visitors and restoration of the ruins began in 1925. Excavation and restoration of Jerash have been almost continuous since the 1920s.

Coordinates: 32° 16′ 20.21″ N, 35° 53′ 29.03″ E


The Hadrianic Arch built in 129/30 AD in honour of the visiting emperor Hadrian. It was built well outside the city which indicates that there were plans to extend the city, though this planned extension was never completed. The arch was left isolated far to the south of the city’s boundaries. Beside this arch stood the town’s hippodrome.
About 37.5 m wide, the Arch of Hadrian was a triple archway, with a wide central opening nearly 11 metres high, flanked by two narrower and lower ones each just about 5 metres high. These arches originally had massive wooden doors.
The Arch of Hadrian was richly decorated. Each face of the arch had four huge engaged columns with Corinthian capitals standing on pedestals and bases. The base of each column was of the Attic type, and was topped by a row of acanthus leaves surrounding the lower part of the shaft. The niches were each supported by two small Corinthian capitals resting on a small entablature set over the two pilasters with capitals.
A Greek inscription with the dedication to Hadrian adorned the north facade looking towards the city.
“To the Good Fortune. For the protection of the Emperor Caesar Trajanus Hadrianus Augustus, son of the divine Trajanus the Parthicus, grandson of the divine Nerva, very high priest, Father of the Nation, and for the wealth and permanence of all his house, the city of the Antiochians-on-the-Chrysorhoas, formely [called] the Gerasenes, by will of Phlaouios Agrippa, the arch of the “triumph”, the year 192 [129/130 AD].
When the Hadrianic project to extend the city was abandoned, the western side of the Gerasa/Philadelphia road was free to build the hippodrome. It is the smallest know hippodrome of the Roman Empire and also the best-preserved, particularly the arched carceres, which are the starting gates where the horses would be positioned.
The arched carceres
Built for chariot racing, the hippodrome was 265 metres long and 50 metres wide. It could accommodate 15,000 spectators.
The chambers below the seats were used as stables, shops, store-rooms and pottery workshops.
The South Gate, one of the two principal entries into the city which as most likely constructed in 129/130 AD just before Hadrian’s visit. The triple arch stood at the southern entrance to the city. It was later became part of the 3.4 kilometre-long city wall constructed at the beginning of the 4th century AD.
The Oval Plaza, built in the beginning of the 2nd century AD to connect the Cardo with the Sanctuary of Zeus.
The west portico of the Oval Plaza. The colonnades were of Ionic order, with the pillars standing on low blocks.
Two small monuments decorated the centre of the Oval Plaza: the first was a base for a group of statues, possibly representing priestesses, which were offered by some high ranking members of the Hadriane-Helios tribe of Gerasa. The second was a small base on which stood four columns – a tetrakionion – which perhaps protected a statue of the emperor Hadrian.
The east portico of the Oval Plaza.
The colonnaded Cardo was the main street of Gerasa, forming the primary axis from which the rest of the city brankches out. Along the Cardo were placed a large, scenically designed nymphaeum and entrance gates (propylaea) to the Cathedral and to the Temple of Artemis.
The Cardo was built at the start of the 2nd century AD. Large portions of the sidewalks were later modified or rebuilt in the 5th/6th centuries AD, with stones taken from earlier monuments such as the Temple of Zeus.
The Macellum (food market), set at the side of the Cardo, was built at the end of the 2nd century AD with blocks re-used from other monuments.
The Macellum had a unique octagonal shape and is based around a paved courtyard with a Greek cross-shaped fountain in its centre. The courtyard is bordered by porticoes of Corinthian columns that opened onto exedrae (large niches), alternating between rectangle and semi-circular shaped.
The South colonnaded Cardo.
The Southern Tetrapylon marked the intersection of the Cardo Maximus with the South Decumanus. All that remains of it today are four solid pedestals embellished with niches. Originally, each pedestal supported four columns made of pink granite from Aswan in Egypt, topped with an entablature. The four sets of four columns are called a tetrakionion.
The South Decumanus.
The Central colonnaded Cardo.
The Western Baths, located on the eastern side of the Cardo. They were once an impressive complex of hot (caldarium), warm (tepidarium) and cold-water (frigidarium) baths. Built in the early 2nd century AD (or at the end of the 1st century AD), the Western Baths were the earliest example of the seven public baths found within the ruins of Gerasa.
The Nymphaeum, located on the western side of the Cardo. It was the main ornamental fountain of Gerasa, dedicated to the water nymphs. Built around 190/91 AD, the two-storey structure was elaborately decorated, faced with marble slabs on the lower level, plastered with painted stucco above. Water spouted from the mouths of several lion heads into a large, deep basin.
The Propylaeum Church, built in the 6th century AD to the east of the Cardo near the propylaea of the Temple of Artemis.
The North Tetrapylon lying at the intersection of the Cardo with the North Decumanus. It was a square-shaped structure with a gate on each side and topped with a dome. It was erected between 165 and 170 AD.
The North Decumanus and the North Tetrapylon.
The North Tetrapylon and the north end of the Cardo.
The north end of the Cardo with the North Gate in the background.
The North Gate marking the northern main entrance to the city. It was built in 115 AD and was dedicated to Trajan as “founder of the city”.
View of the North Decumanus, North Cardo, North Tetrapylon and North Gate.
The North Theatre (also referred as to as the Odeon), originally built as a Bouleuterion (council meeting place) during the reign of Hadrian or Trajan. It was transformed into an Odeon in 165 AD.
The cavea of the North Theatre which had capacity of about 2000 people. The theatre has been magnificently restored in recent years.
Sculptures on the cavea of the North Theatre.
The Temple of Artemis built as a shrine to Artemis who was the patron goddess of the city. Construction of the temple began in the 2nd century AD, however it was never finished. The temple was mounted on a solid podium rising to a height of 4.30m. Ascent to the podium was by means of a stairway extending along the short, eastern front and enclosed by antae.
The remaining Corinthian columns of the Temple of Artemis. The temple of Artemis is a peripteral structure, along each of the two short sides there were 6 columns and eleven along each of the two long ones.
The courtyard of the Temple of Artemis. It was rectangular in shape and measured 88 x 122m. Colonnades extended parallel to the four walls.
The Church of Saints Cosmas and Damianus, one of the complex of three churches that shared an atrium. The three churches were built between 529 and 533 AD. The name of the church is taken from an inscription that names the twin brothers who were devout Christian physicians. The brothers were martyred by the Romans.
The floor of the Church of Saints Cosmas and Damianus featured a remarkable mosaic floor depicting animal and human images.
View of the Church of Saint Theodore and the Cathedral.
The Sanctuary of Zeus Olympios first built in 27/28 AD. The sanctuary extended over two terraces. The temple stood on the highest point of the upper terrace.
The Great Temple of Zeus was erected in 162/3 AD on a terrace above the original sanctuary to Zeus. The temple stood on a podium surrounded by Corinthian columns, 8 columns along each of it short fronts and 12 columns along each of its long sides.
The Corinthian columns of the Great Temple of Zeus.
The South Theatre was the largest and the oldest of the three theatres of Gerasa. This one was built between 80 and 96 AD and is estimated to have seated 3,000 people. The theatre was financed by a number generous benefactors, including a former legionnaire.